First, the computer is a machine. To work correctly, it must be precisely controlled. You *could* instead "train an AI", only to find out the AI has some very funny behaviour in edge cases.
For example, you can train an AI to drive a car and it will work on 364 days of the year. On day 365 it will experience an untrained scene and make a spectacular crash.
Regarding loops, branches, instructions and function calls - they are the essence of imperative programming. Like a certain sweetness and acidity (and more) we know as apples.
Then there are other fruits such as functional programming with much more mathematical expressiveness. Think of the sweetness and acidity (and more) of an orange.
Some programming problems call for imperative, while others are best solved using functional languages. One day you want to eat an apple, the next day you prefer an orange. That does not mean oranges are categorically better than apples.
Also, there are many more fruits such as logic programming. They have their niches, too.