I got stuck in one of these recovery loops a few weeks ago, immediately after installing a new M.2 SSD as the boot drive. Windows kept trying boot from the previous drive and, of course, immediately failing to recovery mode. I finally selected the boot drive myself prior to startup, and the system came up properly. But the next time I restarted without selecting the drive (as an experiment), the same error occurred.
I was starting to get a little perplexed. I went into the BIOS and checked the system boot order--it was incorrect. D'oh. I set it to the correct order,saved, and restarted. The wrong drive got selected before I could get the boot order menu. Back into BIOS. Wrong order still. Corrected. Restarted. Wrong order, failed boot.
WTF? A bad chip?? Why won't it save??
Did the same thing about five more times and suddenly, everything was working correctly. Pushed my luck, went into BIOS--the boot order was correct, and has remained so every since. I have never seen something like this happen before in ~40 years of putzing with personal computers.