Yes. It's called a Charging Downstream Port and has been in the USB spec for a couple of years now. Newer devices like the iPhone 5 onwards support it and negotiate a higher current draw while in data mode. I don't know what support is like for other manufacturers. I also don't know how many actual USB ports support this version of the standard.
Chargers are simpler: the USB spec allows for high current (up to about 1.5A I think, but I'd have to check the spec) whenever the D+ and D- pins are detected to be a short. Pretty much all USB chargers for a number of years have done this; although Samsung have now taken to using voltage dividers again for their super-high-power chargers (~2.5A I believe), which is the trick that Apple has used for years to support high current.
Micro-USB is still a pile of shit, though. The connectors - particularly inside the devices - are very flimsy and not sufficiently directional to avoid people attempting to jam them in upside down and damaging the cable and/or device. Working in the business of mobile phone charging I can assure you that - trying not to sound like a fanboi - the Lightning design really is orders of magnitude more robust, so it's good news to see the USB forum rethinking the design of the USB connector, though bad news for everyone that's going to have to get new cables.
What I don't understand is why the rules would specify a micro-USB port on the device, when the simple and smart thing would be to require a standard USB type-A port on the charger. Then you can plug whatever the right cable is into it.