Re: Geologist on the Moon
Neil Armstrong and Elliot See were both former military. But unlike the rest they were former military at the time of their missions, allowing NASA to bill them as civilian astronauts.
Of astronauts, groups 1 and 2 all had test pilot experience. Group 3 had some non test pilots - as experience on military fast jets was now sufficient. Group 4 ("The Scientists") had two (out of six) with no military background, of which Schmitt was the first in space. Of cosmonauts, Tereshkova was the first civilian - at the time of selection. By flight she'd been commissioned.