India should provide its people with fucking toilets and a sewage system
That it does not has much to do with the caste system and sewage removal, i.e. who should remove it, i.e. the Dalits (formerly known as "Untouchables"). Apparently higher-caste Indians feel "soiled" by coming in contact with the Dalits who perform this function. (No pun intended.) The problem is "solved" by people simply continuing to crap in fields.
I also understand that funds intended for sewerage systems end up in personal bank accounts ("These people don't need sewerage systems.").