Linux works pretty well in Hyper-V. I’ve tried Debian and Ubuntu, both work out of the box without any hypervisor tools, other distros probably work too.
You can attach a drive directly to the vm, take it off line in Windows first, then add it in the vm preferences. Then you can share it with Windows using Samba. It’s a bit more involved, but it will work.
VMWare is also an option. You need to install VMWare tools in the guest OS, but after that it is a little easier to map hardware to the vm, and you have more optiins besides storage drives.