"No one really understands why machine-learning code is so brittle"
For me, the answer to that question is hinted at early in the article -
To be safe, the input data should be thoroughly sanitized, or the AI software should be banned from handling user-supplied information directly..,
That bit immediately made me think of how children develop - we limit and simplify their inputs and don't trust them with anything complex until their brains have learned enough (and that's not just information, but also complexity of associations of information in their brains) to move on to more real-life things.
That's a process that takes years and a lot of effort, and they can still end up not appreciating that crayons aren't for eating, and food is not for drawing with.
Until they scale up the systems and their training, I don't think this stuff is going to give us anything better than a crude imitation of human decision-making.