Re: phrenology and 19th C.
Some people still believe in that. And in that other 19th invention, "Flat Earth", which seems to have been a satirical invention. Some Evolutionists claimed Creationists believed it. Actually before circumnavigation most people and the Church never thought about it at all. Both ancients and Christian Era experts actually knew the Earth is round and quite a few had good estimates about the size. Even Galileo vs Church wasn't really about science, he put theology in his treatise. Others had more accurately written about Earth & Sun and had Catholic Patrons, or were Catholic and had no problem. It's not as if they tortured him or burnt him at the stake either. He was put under house arrest. He didn't like leaving the villa anyway.
Why this digression? Because some arguments are not about what they claim to be, but about politics. Maybe the real issue is that Neural Networks, Machine Learning and "AI" is all a bit rubbish. Some people would like big successes where it's much better than people.
The more controversial and headline grabbing the better!