Re: Have you actually read the article?
"What happened to the idea of encouraging free expression."
Google is a corporation, not the US government. Corporations are not required to pay attention to the First Amendment. Damore attacked its HR policies. Whether he was factually correct or not - and actually I have no view on the subject - there are, I guess, not many corporations where publicly telling senior management that they are wrong from a junior position would not lead to termination. I've worked for a US corporation and for UK ones, and I got shouted at and threatened with termination by a US CEO for a much more minor offense. Like my director of engineering around the same time, I decided to leave of my own accord.
At one company I worked for there was a metallurgist who used to buttonhole people in the canteen and tell everybody what the management was doing wrong, but he was regarded as a harmless nutter outside his field and was simply ignored. I imagine, though, that if he had nailed a 10 page manifesto to the receptionist's desk, things might have escalated.