When you set up the phone you have the option of turning it 'off' so that NO applications can access your location via gps/wifi, or turn it 'off' so that they can.
I leave wifi and gps on all the time. No untoward battery drain, not unwanted prompts for app installs... Maybe it's cause I don't use data; maybe it's because I don't use public wifi. Whatever it is, Google doesn't seem to know with any certainty where I am except if I'm at home or at work.
I've just checked my location history. It had me scratching my head until it dawned on me that Google is using the GPS data embedded in photographs (presumab