Did the CIA know? How about the NSA?
I find it difficult to believe that the USA's spymasters did not already know of this deception. USA security entities will typically claim to have foiled a terrorist plot after finding an air traveler with a fingernail file. Yet they overlooked hundreds of thousands of non-compliant vehicles, actively poisoning the air throughout the continental USA? Absurd. Impossible. Was the knowledge being used to blackmail VW corporate leadership? Or possibly German national leadership? If the USA clandestine services did NOT already know about this, then they should all be fired. Most of them should be fired regardless.