Re: (@ DavCrav)
"Just like human brains. In the case of brains it's a set of biological (genetic, chemical, physical, etc.) rules. Those rules can be 'emulated' or even 'simulated' in a 'normal' computer. The 'entity' resulting from such a simulation should show the same kind of behaviour as a human brain."
Assertion without proof. If you want to prove that a human brain can be simulated by computer, you have to prove that a human brain is equivalent to one, namely a Turing machine. This isn't some woolly philosophy exercise about complicated algorithms. This is a mathematical statement. In particular, you need to be able to explain how human brains can (allegedly) understand paradoxes, and statements like Goedel's theorems, or how I can consider uncomputable numbers, inaccessible cardinals, the class of all ordinals, non-standard models, etc. All these juicy mathematical constructs that look very bad from the standpoint of Turing machines.