Re: As usual, apples and oranges
Nope, no, that's a narrative big and corrupt ISPs are pushing.
Take Romania, for example: year 2002, not in EU, very poor country, extremely poor people, not much disposable income but unregulated ISP market (read: no licenses, no artificial lock-in, anybody could provide internet by registering a LTD, operating the next day). Result: there were over 3000 small ISPs that covered not more than a few streets, maybe two neighbourhoods, everybody had several offers to choose from, internet was pennies because of competition.
Over time, those ISPs bought one another, installed fibre by themselves, by 2008 major cities had 1Gbps, currently everybody can have 1Gbps for €9 per month, they choose not to get 1Gbps because 250Mbps is the lowest and good enough.
No government subsidies, only private money, only small company money, 1Gbps by 2008 in a market where only 1% of population could afford the costs, now 98% coverage despite no government subsidies, despite the fact that over 50% of Romanians don't care for any form of internet.
Same thing happened with mobile data and voice: Qualcomm bought an older network there to test their (future, at that time) VoLTE, they weren't interested in profits but wanted to test the tech, offered calls at 1c per call back in 2003-2004, automatically Vodafone, Orange and T-Mobile of Romania had to offer the same, otherwise they would've been out of business.
And guess what: they offered the same, they're still offering now, none of them went bankrupt, now unlimited voice and data over 5G with Vodafone is €7.
Yes, that same Vodafone that's here in UK.