"the periodic table is exhausted"
For all practical purposes, the periodic table has already been exhausted. While it's probably possible to manufacture trace amounts of new elements with very expensive laboratory equipment, none of those elements is stable. Not even close, in fact. Even if the island of stability exists, there may be a couple of isotopes that are merely somewhat less radioactive than others; no model of which I'm aware posits that these are actually stable. No one wants alpha emitters, nor any kind of decaying atoms, in their silicon, and no one is going to pay millions of currency units for picograms of these exotic materials to put them to that use.
It's always dangerous to suggest that any avenue in physical science has been fully explored to its very end, but it does seem quite reasonable to suggest that for at least as long as Mr Gelsinger is alive, we're going to be stuck making computers from the same 80 stable elements humans have been using for millennia. Whether there is a heaviest element or it's possible to create stable superheavy isotopes are interesting questions but they will not be usefully answered before "Moore's Law" (really an observation about economics) peters out; indeed, it is doing so already. I don't envy Mr Gelsinger: he has taken on the impossible task of reviving a dead corporation that has lost its leadership position and much of its talent. No doubt reminding everyone who remains of Moore's founding role in the industry and wearing a brave face about his observation's -- and by extension the company's -- future is good for internal morale. But that's all this is. 3nm and 2nm work is already underway, and it's being done by Intel's competitors while they flounder around at the 7nm node those competitors have been using for years. If there are to be more nodes beyond, they won't involve superheavy elements, and it's doubtful they'll be implemented by Intel.