Re: VW. Not.
To be clear about this, because it's often repeated that "they were all at it":
Every manufacturer is guilty of following the letter, but not the spirit, of the emissions regulations; they programmed their cars' engine controllers to behave differently when they detected "test-like" driving patterns. But, if you happened to drive your car that way, you'd have achieved the quoted emissions (but, let's be clear, almost nobody drives like the NEDC cycle)
But: only Volkswagen was found to have deliberately programmed their cars to detect the test situation itself, and then behave differently while the car was being tested. Because this mode only activated when the car was in a lab (front wheels turning but rear wheels not turning, driver's door open), there was no way to reproduce the result while on the road, no matter how frugal your driving style.
That was a whole new level of cheating beyond what the rest of the industry did.