back to article Ethernet failure on Swiss business jet prompted emergency descent, say aviation safety bods

An Ethernet failure aboard popular Swiss-made business jets could prompt the aircraft to move into an emergency descent as flight systems entered a "degraded" mode, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has warned. In a recently issued airworthiness directive, EASA has ordered operators of the Pilatus PC-24 to install new …

  1. Luiz Abdala
    Joke

    FCS is not new.

    Fly-by-wire - where everything is hooked to a computer - is not something new. F-16's have been flying like this for, what, 40 years now?

    What's new is not having a McDonnel - Douglas level of budget to exhaustively test everything or having the DoD breathing down your neck to QA the bloody thing properly because you are going to wage war with it.

    Trusting your life to a router ain't exactly a good thing, unless you built it for this purpose with infinite budget... so it works right off the bat, and you don't have to wait WINDOWS UPDATE to deploy the landing gear or lower flaps!

    1. Caver_Dave Silver badge
      Boffin

      Re: FCS is not new.

      You don't need an infinite bucket.

      You can get certifiable (i.e. all the certification artefacts are already packaged and can be bought) network and compute systems as COTS (common off the shelf) products, if you go to the correct supplier.

      As the aircraft manufacturer, it is then up to you to include this in the aircraft certification.

      1. c1ue

        Re: FCS is not new.

        How many true-industrial certifiable routers are there?

        It used to take 4 years for 4-16 bit microcontroller systems to get certified for use in cars; I would think airplanes are considerably more at-risk.

        1. This post has been deleted by its author

          1. Fruit and Nutcase Silver badge

            Re: FCS is not new.

            For sure, I feel a lot safer on the M25 than US101, even in the Suburban

            Not if Highways England rollout more SMARTDUMB Motorways

            https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-51236375

      2. NoneSuch Silver badge
        Trollface

        "Have you tried turning it off and on again?"

        It'll glide long enough for a reboot surely...

        1. sanmigueelbeer Silver badge

          Re: "Have you tried turning it off and on again?"

          Not unless the system "crashed".

    2. This post has been deleted by its author

    3. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: FCS is not new.

      This isn't trusting your life to a router though, these are all systems that make the flight more comfortable for the passengers, and easier for the pilot, but the plane can (and did) continue to fly without any of it working. The "emergency descent" mentioned will have been to bring the aircraft down to a height where there is enough oxygen in case the cabin pressure gets compromised, which is standard practice and would be carried out by the pilot in an emergency if the autopilot didn't do it. This incident is equivalent to the climate control, power steering, and traction control in your car turning off, rather than the engine cutting out.

      From the description of the incident, no one was ever in any danger, but they would be considerably less comfortable, and would immediately get the situation checked out (in the same way you would with an electrical fault in your car).

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Re: FCS is not new.

        I'd argue that the environmental control system is more than a "comfort" system on a pressurized aircraft.

        1. Trollslayer

          Re: FCS is not new.

          I would expect a system like that would make sure the people on board have enough oxygen by using a considerable margin.

      2. DropBear

        Re: FCS is not new.

        I'd also argue that I've had my brake vacuum assist "turn off" in may car (due to another small vacuum hose splitting at the end and starting to leak badly), and let me tell you the only reason I didn't full on crash into the vehicle in front of me when it happened was that I tend to drive hella cautiously. I defo did skip a beat though seeing as how the effect can best be described as "step on the brakes and nothing whatsoever happens" even though technically they do still work, you just have to apply roughly 10Gs worth of your body weight on them to do what they did before. So I'm sorry, no, modern "luxuries" in a car are NOT, in fact, luxuries.

    4. swm Silver badge

      Re: FCS is not new.

      Military aircraft have different requirements but, e.g., there were bugs when some military planes crossed the equator.

    5. swm Silver badge

      Re: FCS is not new.

      Some of the stealth aircraft are so unstable that they must use fly-by-wire as the pilot's reaction time is too slow. The instability means that these aircraft can turn on a dime. If you lose the fly-by-wire you bail out.

      1. Claptrap314 Silver badge

        Re: FCS is not new.

        You talking about the Wobbly Dog, I assume...

      2. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Re: FCS is not new.

        This applies to the F16 and virtually every military aircraft developed since. They are dynamically unstable in all 3 axes and would not be able to fly without FBW. If you watch an aircraft such as an F16 or F18 doing a high angle of attack slow pass at an airshow you can see all the control services constantly moving under the control of the FBW system.

        One of the early F117 "Wobbly Goblins" crashed due to incorrect information being fed to the FBW system. Basically took off, then threw itself at the ground and failed to miss.

        1. Morrie Wyatt
          Thumb Up

          Re: FCS is not new.

          Sounds like you really know where your towel is.

      3. ElectricPics

        Re: FCS is not new.

        All modern fighter aircraft are inherently unstable and have been since the F16 and Tornado era. The reason, as you say, is enhanced maneuverability. Flying one without infinitely self adjusting control surfaces isn’t impossible but they turn into a flying brick.

    6. I am the liquor

      Re: FCS is not new.

      I'm sure the DoD's QA is excellent, but you'd hope the standards for civilian aircraft would be orders of magnitude better, not worse.

      F-16s don't have to carry passengers, and the pilot knows they're signing up for a certain risk of death when they take the job. Though they do have the means to descend safely to earth without the aircraft, which is a nice reassurance to have.

      People would rightly have conniptions if 15% of all 737s ever built had crashed, but that's par for the course for a lot of fighter aircraft, including the F-16.

      1. MJI Silver badge

        Re: FCS is not new.

        >>if 15% of all 737s ever built had crashed<<

        387 total Max say about half are 8

        I think it is roughly 1% of Max 8s.

        Too high still.

  2. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

    Network switches in aircraft

    I used to supply these to various air frame integrators.

    I was rather taken aback when it just popped up in conversation that aboard a major new large aircraft (think Jumbo jet size, but not suggesting any particular manufacturer) as part of their flight trials, they had removed the flight control network switch(es) in flight and swapped for other units they had at hand.

    They have bigger dangly bits that I have!!!

    1. Trollslayer

      Re: Network switches in aircraft

      I expect there is redundancy built in to something like that.

  3. Chris G Silver badge

    My personal feeling is that anything that can be flown manually should have a total overide system, so that in the event of a hijack by gremlins, the pilot/s can take full control of the aircraft.

    Pilots ought to be considered a significant part of the redundancy rather than simply redundant.

    1. Martin Summers Silver badge

      Well yes, an emergency descent system is only going to help for a short (possibly very short) amount of time isn't it!

      (Hopefully this system is just to bring the plane down to a level where masks aren't required)

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        A teeny flaw in that plan is if the plane is flying over mountains at the time. I'd sooner be unconcious than spread out in bits across a mountainside.

        1. Nick Ryan Silver badge

          Unfortunately if the pilot is unconcious due to lack of oxygen then being spread across a mountainside, or any other bit of terrian, is a higher risk.

        2. Anonymous Coward
          Anonymous Coward

          It is not a flaw, an "emergency descent" is not a dive into the ground, it is a relatively rapid but controlled descent to 10000ft or below. There are not many mountains above that height, and flying over them requires specific procedures and permissions, which will include amended emergency descent procedures if required.

          It is almost like the people who design aircraft and their procedures know more about these problems than commentators on IT forums :D

          1. Anonymous Coward
            Anonymous Coward

            Are these the same designers who designed an emergency descent as the same response to an ethernet switch failure? Obviously they changed their minds as a software upgrade now prevents that. But clearly they're infallible regardless.

            1. Richard 12 Silver badge
              Stop

              It's the default response to cabin pressure

              If something happens that either does or is likely to result in the loss of cabin pressure, you dive to 10k feet (unless terrain).

              This is because the emergency oxygen supply doesn't last very long, and you need to be in breathable outside air before it runs out.

              So it's basically an automatic pilot response to their oxygen masks deploying.

              If your mask pops out of the ceiling, you put it on and start the emergency descent. You don't ask why it happened until you're down at a safe flight level.

              1. Anonymous Coward
                Anonymous Coward

                Re: It's the default response to cabin pressure

                So why has that default behaviour been changed in an emergency software update then? Over to you genius....

                1. Dabooka Silver badge

                  Re: It's the default response to cabin pressure

                  Well I'm not a genius but I can't see anything in the article to suggest that is what it's fixing.

                  I assume the software update is about stopping the Ethernet borking itself. A bit like the 50-odd day recycle needed in some passenger jets to 'turn it off and on again' and prevent it crashing (in the IT sense of the word).

                  1. Anonymous Coward
                    Anonymous Coward

                    Re: It's the default response to cabin pressure

                    "I assume the software update is about stopping the Ethernet borking itself"

                    Oh right, and how does a software update prevent a hardware failure? Do tell, I'm sure many system engineers would love to hear about this new discovery.

                2. Richard 12 Silver badge

                  Re: It's the default response to cabin pressure

                  It hasn't. You may wish to RTFA.

                  1. Anonymous Coward
                    Anonymous Coward

                    Re: It's the default response to cabin pressure

                    It has - emergency descent will no longer happen upon network failure. I would suggest you try learning to read yourself.

                    1. Anonymous Coward
                      Anonymous Coward

                      Re: It's the default response to cabin pressure

                      Boltar summarised:

                      "emergency descent will no longer happen upon network failure."

                      Seems like a perfectly reasonable fix as stated. Got any pointers to further info?

                      That said, it does suggest that more than one person/organisation may have made a pretty poor job of any Failure Mode and Effects/Criticality Analysis that may or may not have been conducted, supervised, reviewed, and approved.

                      (Been there, seen that, no longer in the industry)

                    2. Dabooka Silver badge

                      Re: It's the default response to cabin pressure

                      You keep assuming the network failure is a hardware failure.

                      I do not understand why you think that is the case, the article even links to a previous story where the power cycling of an aircraft was required to stop the internal network from crashing (as I suggested originally).

                      It really isn't that difficult a concept.

          2. John Doe 12

            "It is almost like the people who design aircraft and their procedures know more about these problems than commentators on IT forums :D"

            Downvoted you as sadly this statement is no longer true 100% of the time. I would imagine many of the commentators here would appreciate the value of sensor redundancy more than apparently Boeing did!!

            1. Trollslayer
              Flame

              Boeing are still trying to wriggle out of using three AOA sensors on the 737 MAX.

              After all, it costs money.

    2. Greybearded old scrote Silver badge

      One reason (but not the only one) for fly by wire is that the aerodynamic forces just get beyond human muscles. See the comments about the 787 Max trim wheel.

      1. Jim Mitchell Silver badge

        An 737 hold lots of passengers, give each one a trim control wheel. Much like a Roman galley, torque should no longer be an issue.

        1. Fruit and Nutcase Silver badge

          Don't give Michael O'Leary of Ryanair ideas - he'll install pedals or hand cranks on each seat connected to electrical generators to provide power for auxiliary functions

        2. Anonymous Coward
          Anonymous Coward

          galley

          and the air hostesses walking the aisles with whips to make the passengers pull

          Must go and cool off now

      2. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Just add in some traditional power steering!

      3. Mike Richards Silver badge

        Hydraulics were introduced to overcome aerodynamic forces - but they are big, heavy and complex systems. There is a lot of weight-saving and improved mechanical reliability to be had from fly-by-wire.

        1. SkippyBing

          Most fly-by-wire systems still rely on hydraulics as the actuators. Older non-fly-by-wire aircraft often had cables running from the controls to the hydraulics actuators, so the weight saving is probably less than you'd think.

          NB you can undoubtedly find exceptions to both those statements.

          1. Trollslayer
            Thumb Up

            Some military aircraft have a 'reversion' mode with cables in case the hydraulics are knocked out.

            There was an A-10 where both hydraulic systems were shot up and the pilot managed to land safely and the aircraft was repairable.

            1. Anonymous Coward
              Anonymous Coward

              The A10 is tough, and built to survive and get home after multiple bits have been shot off. However, I still think the most impressive "landing with bits missing" has to be Israeli pilot Ziv Nedivi landing an F15 with only one wing after a training collision with an A4.

      4. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Aerodynamic forces just get beyond human muscles

        Though there are ways round that, such as hydraulic systems (that have been around forever). Didn't the DC9 use them?

        1. fobobob

          Re: Aerodynamic forces just get beyond human muscles

          DC-9 in particular has control tabs (operated directly by the yoke and pedals) for all primary flight controls. The rudder is hydraulically powered, but will fall back to tabs automatically if lost. Also has a hydraulic pusher for the elevators that would be used when trying to recover from high AoA situations where airflow might be insufficient to allow the control tabs to move the elevators properly. It is a very 'analog' plane by today's standards.

          To elaborate, control tabs are a smaller control surface that moves opposite the desired control deflection, and basically fly the control surface into position. As their effectiveness increases with speed (up to a point), controls remain reasonably light on a smaller aircraft.

          For more details on this and secondary flight controls (flaps and spoilers are also hydraulic), see http://www.hilmerby.com/dc9/flap.html

          - I had originally written in 'servo tab', but that is a related concept used to reduce control forces on otherwise directly linked surfaces... on DC-9, the control tabs are the only thing linked directly to the controls.

          1. Dabooka Silver badge
            Thumb Up

            Re: Aerodynamic forces just get beyond human muscles

            Thanks for that, this I did not know.

            I love these boards at times

            1. Trollslayer
              Thumb Up

              Re: Aerodynamic forces just get beyond human muscles

              Definitely!

      5. Chris G Silver badge

        Beyond human muscles is why servo systems like power steering were invented, although they can be operated by fly by wire they can also be operated by a pilot, so as I said anything that can be operated by a pilot should have an override so that in the event of Fly by wire/AI failure a meatbag can take over.

      6. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        I'm only being slightly flippant but it depends on the human. I'm not saying pilots should hit the weights every day but your regular weights user is probably 50-100% stronger than Mr Average which could make a big difference in this sort of scenario. Perhaps there should be a minimum fitness/strength level for pilots as well as a medical checklist.

        1. DS999 Silver badge

          They could just broadcast an announcement over the PA: "we need a volunteer who can bench at least 300 lbs for 8 reps, please come to the front of the cabin"

          1. David 132 Silver badge
            Happy

            "Paging Charles Atlas... Charles Atlas to the white courtesy phone"

            ...

            "No, the white phone"

          2. Anonymous Coward
            Anonymous Coward

            For pulling back on a yoke you want the deadlift guy :)

        2. anthonyhegedus

          “We are experiencing slight alterations to the altitude and pitch of the aircraft and this is nothing to worry about. Also is there anybody on board who has a spare 5-port network switch on them?”

  4. Gene Cash Silver badge
    Flame

    Destination Host Unreachable

    Hopefully the fact the node in the tail is not responding doesn't mean the tail fell off!

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Destination Host Unreachable

      Has to be in the tail as that's where the ethernet cable connecting them to the airport unspools from.

      Psst - don't tell Apple as they have a trademark on 'Airport Base Station'

    2. David 132 Silver badge
      Coat

      Re: Destination Host Unreachable

      That's less typical than the front falling off, I'd just like to make that point.

      1. pavel.petrman

        Re: Destination Host Unreachable

        This will never grow old!

  5. Hairy Wolf
    FAIL

    Redundant Comment

    Didn't I see dual redundant Ethernet in the article? Doesn't that mean that when one fails the other should still work? Or should I take the "fixed by software patch" as an indication that software took out main and redundant symultaneously?

    1. steelpillow Silver badge
      Megaphone

      Re: Redundant Comment

      It mentions a dual-channel Ethernet device.

      Of all the people in the frikkin' world who ought to know that dual-channel redundancy means dual hardware kit, it ought to be aircraft systems designers.

      This is the kind of idiocy that lights up the BOFH's choice of next candidate for the open window. And at 30,000 ft that strikes me as not a bad idea.

      How widespread is this practice?

      Speechless!

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Re: Redundant Comment

        "How widespread is this practice?"

        AFDX/ARINC664 are common as muck and have been for a decade or more.

        There are a few bits and pieces which distinguish real AFDX/ARINC664 from an average Ethernet switch.

        If there's a more detailed writeup (root cause anlaysis etc) of what went wrong (other than calling an aircraft a PC!?), I'd be interested to see it.

  6. admford

    If anyone is interested, the technology in question is called “AFDX”/ARINC-664 Part 7, or “Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet”

    It’s pretty much the standard for avionics systems that are now being implemented on new aircraft such as the 787, 747-8, A380, A350, recent Gulfstreams, etc.

    1. druck Silver badge

      Moved on from the ARINC-429 used we in the A330/A340 then.

    2. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      ARINC664/AFDX vs COTS

      "“AFDX”/ARINC-664 Part 7, or “Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet”" is remarkably similar to dual-link UDP over a pair of classical switched Ethernets, and has been for a few years. Indistinguishable, in some circumstances.

      I've even seen High Street network gear used (on the ground, for test/experimental purposes) when the real thing was temporarily unavailable.

      However, there are some real differences (or used to be) such as hardware-enforced bandwidth limits, and when it's deployed in a real aircraft, you might expect it to be the dedicated flight-standard real thing, not the PC World/D-Link/Netgear/etc version.

      The fact that the Airworthiness Directive references Ethernet rather than AFDX or ARINC664 is interesting. Yes I've looked at the source as well as the article. Maybe there was a time when EASA would have been more careful with terminology. Or maybe I'm misremembering - this 2008 article calls it out as Ethernet too:

      https://www.aviationtoday.com/2008/10/01/deterministic-ethernet-for-avionics/

      "ARINC Specification 664 Part 7 defines AFDX. AFDX takes existing Ethernet physical layer technology and, using switched Ethernet in full-duplex mode as a basis, adds deterministic packet delivery, and high-integrity and high-availability mechanisms."

      1. Richard 12 Silver badge

        Re: ARINC664/AFDX vs COTS

        So the physical layer is indeed Ethernet, but the switch fabric is special.

        That makes sense. Ethernet physical layer hardware has had billions of hours of testing, so the failure modes should be well understood by now.

  7. Version 1.0 Silver badge

    Just checking my email ...

    After take off, "Oh nice, we've got a new order - let's see what they want, it's New_PO_unrget_reply_needed.zip (sic), I'll take a look. Ah, a PFD file lets see ..."

    ... rapid decent ...

    Back in the office, "Oh, it was New_PO_unrget_reply_needed.PDF.exe"

  8. RM Myers Silver badge
    Joke

    When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

    They should have used Token Ring! IBM always claimed it degraded much more gracefully.

    1. I ain't Spartacus Gold badge
      Happy

      Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

      What's wrong with ethernet over carrier pigeon?

      1. Stoneshop Silver badge
        Holmes

        Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

        Few aircraft can fly slow enough that carrier pigeons can keep up.

        1. DS999 Silver badge
          Trollface

          Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

          That's easy to solve, have the pigeons fly inside the aircraft rather than outside. Just have to find a way to prevent them from pooping in the first class cabin.

          1. Stoneshop Silver badge
            Facepalm

            Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

            Have you thought about data packets destined for any sensors and actuators located in the wings? Are those pigeons supposed to crawl there, via channels in the ribs and stiffeners?

      2. Mark 85 Silver badge

        Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

        What's wrong with ethernet over carrier pigeon?

        That might require rocket or jet assisted pigeons.

        1. KarMann Silver badge
          Coat

          Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

          Gonna need a new RFC for that. And April's still six months away, or 9 years in COVID time.

        2. I ain't Spartacus Gold badge
          Happy

          Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

          People have raised some issues with my sensible suggestion about IP over pigeon. But I think they've neglected a few factors.

          Firstly most data is transmitted from cockpit to the planes control surfaces. Well if the plane is doing say 400kts then the pigeons simply need to leave the cockpit and wait for a second or two, and the tail elevator or wing slats will reach them with hardly any effort required at all. I suppose a harsh person might suggest that this is only a form of broadcasting, rather than networking.

          But I would argue that the energy saving on the trip down-plane, would leave them fit for the much less important trips back up-plane - back to the cockpit with any required sensor data.

          Chickens can climb ladders in order to get into their coops. This being a basic anti-fox defence. Well I don't see why pigeons couldn't manage the same feat. Then you'd simply need to install a few so they could get into the passenger or baggage cabin and then flying up-plane would be simple.

          Plus we now have various relightable solid rocket boosters available, should they require a quick burst of speed - such as if they need to communicate an engine fire. But in the main I think we should encourage a slower pace of life - and I'm sure the pilots will discover if the undercarriage has deployed or not once they put the plane on the runway.

    2. IGotOut Silver badge

      Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

      Yes the switches degraded gracefully by completely shutting down the port. Pain on pc, hell on an uplink.

      The amount of times that orange light on a BayStack lit up still haunts me to this day.

      1. RM Myers Silver badge
        Happy

        Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

        When we first started getting local networks at my former employer, I worked in an IT shop in Finance. We wanted to get ethernet, since our new hire network people had a background in ethernet, and it was much cheaper. However, the main IT area was all mainframe people who basically did what IBM told them to do, and they set a companywide requirement to use token ring. We subsequently found out that the regional offices, who were our primary customers and were also profit centers, had all ignored the requirement and installed ethernet, making application troubleshooting interesting if there was a network problem, since we had token ring and central IT wouldn't support ethernet.

        Eventually, central IT changed to use ethernet, and hired our network people away from us. Interesting times!

    3. Lars Silver badge
      Happy

      Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

      I did notice your icon, Token Ring was physical when I had something to do with it, long ago. Some companies had to let go of some of their lifts just to be able to pull all those wires from floor to floor, and I think there was some joke in London about the Exchange, did the building support all the wire or was it the opposite way.

    4. martinusher Silver badge

      Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

      Token Ring does degrade gracefully but its got appalling throughput compared to Ethernet, its expensive and relatively few people understand it. It was on of those 'seemed like a good idea at the time' jobs.

      There is another class of networking that many people -- even those that work with data networks -- are unaware of. These are industrial networking technologies, and one popular one has a passing resemblance to Token Ring. Its also used by Airbus -- at least they're members of the technology group. This type of networking -- EtherCAT -- is built on Ethernet physical layer equipment and (superficially) Ethernet format traffic but all the stations are connected in a ring. It differs from 'pure' Token Ring type networks in that there is no circulating token or MAC level protocol to manage and throw a token -- all traffic originates from and terminates on a 'master'. This type of network is designed to be reliable, potentially redundant, to fail in a predictable manner and can support syncronized data transfers to a precision of a microsecond or better.

    5. Antron Argaiv Silver badge
      Thumb Up

      Re: When that Ethernet network degrades or fails, things can become unpredictable.

      Yeah, well, they would have, but the additional weight of the TYPE 1 cables, connectors and hubs made the airplane too heavy to fly. Also, there was no room left for luggage or passengers.

      // Token Ring sucks

  9. Mike Richards Silver badge

    Back to the future

    A nice old-fashioned entirely-mechanical VC-10 sounds rather appealing right now

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Back to the future

      It was either a VC-10 or a Trident that was the first totally pilot free (successful) landing in the UK.

      1. SkippyBing

        Re: Back to the future

        I believe Trident as it was claimed the offset nose wheel was to stop damage from it constantly hitting the runway centre line lights. Human pilots generally not managing it on every landing...

      2. fobobob

        Re: Back to the future

        Meanwhile in America https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornfield_Bomber

        (I can't recall when our first fully automatic *intentional* landing was, but this has always amused me)

  10. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

    Call me simple but would a "Network Degradation" light and alarm in the cockpit not be more useful rather than automatic land mode enabled. Also as there must be separate controls (they clearly turned all this off when it happened) they could presumably turn them on if needed.

  11. Lars Silver badge
    Coat

    Pilatus PC-24

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zx2bZiGizMo

    Pilatus PC-24 | The Super Versatile Jet

  12. Kev99

    But, but, computers are perfectly suited to control life or death situations. Funny thing, Europe and Japan were bomber to hell without a single digital computer.

  13. PassiveSmoking

    Changelog

    * Fix unexpected crash in FCS software

    Changelogs in aviation suddenly sound a lot more alarming

  14. Conyn Curmudgeon

    Old Cat5 only cable I found in the glovebox, when I tell you to cut the ends off and put it in the bin forcefully don't just put it back in the glovebox or this will happen again.

  15. Robert Grant Silver badge

    Like all complex machines in the modern era, jet aircraft are essentially flying servers

    All complex machines fly? Don't tell the nuclear submarines.

    1. MJI Silver badge

      Flying Sub?

      1. anthonyhegedus

        Subs are simple devices. Sub goes up. Sub goes down. Sub enters mouth of giant whale-shark-thing.

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