back to article Forget James Bond's super-gadgets, this chap spied for China using SD card dead drops. Now he's behind bars

An American citizen will spend the next four or so years behind bars in the US for smuggling corporate secrets out of the states to his spymasters in China. A federal district judge this week sentenced Xuehua Edward Peng, 56, of Hayward, California, after he admitted handing over the trade secrets to Beijing. Peng earlier …

  1. KittenHuffer Silver badge


    So Chinese take-away is illegal in the US now?!?

    1. Andy Non Silver badge

      Re: What?

      His fortune cookie said "You won't be travelling for the foreseeable future"

  2. Richard 12 Silver badge


    That's a lot of cash to take out, and get back, surely his bank's money-laundering detection system should have flagged such large paired transactions immediately?

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Money-laundering?

      Who says he was depositing the money back into the bank after he took it out the first time? If you knew you were going to need $20,000 cash again and again and the bank was paying little or no interest, would you bother?

    2. LazLong

      Re: Money-laundering?

      Yes. Any transaction of $10k+ is sent to the Federal Gov't.

      4 years in a Federal pound-me-in-the-ass prison is insufficient; At least ten.

      1. Brian Miller

        Re: Money-laundering?

        $5k + $5k + $5k + $5k = $20k, no problem, no report to the feds.

        I, too, am surprised to see such a light sentence. If probation is a factor, then he might only see a year in jail.

        1. c1ue

          Re: Money-laundering?

          Incorrect. There are 2 levels of reporting - the $10K is a hard requirement but banks are supposed to report anything $2K up to $10K at the bank's discretion. I'd be shocked if this didn't happen frequently since it is mostly automated.

          1. doublelayer Silver badge

            Re: Money-laundering?

            I wouldn't be surprised to hear that he made some withdrawals for the first payment and then used the cash from the reimbursements for the next payments. How the reimbursements got to him is another story, but if I needed to deliver a bunch of cash without getting caught, I'd probably run it that way.

        2. Boo Radley

          Re: Money-laundering?

          In the US Federal prison system inmates serve 85% of their sentences before being released. If probation was a part of his sentence it would be indicated in the article.

  3. werdsmith Silver badge

    If the FBI had him under surveillance then the people loading up the SD cards for $20k may also be known, and these people are more than just couriers.

  4. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

    Gosh, this can't be right

    Any time someone mentions here that China engages massively in corporate espionage, a gang of commentards ridicules and abuses them for believing such lies. How, then, can this story be true?

    I trust our loyal commentards will promptly rally round and sort out this ElReg journo, set him to rights.

    1. Joe W Silver badge

      Re: Gosh, this can't be right

      What people ridicule is that only China is doing that (I'm pretty sure most countries do that, actually), and they also like to point out that e.g. Cisco had actually backdoors for the US TLAs in their products to exfiltrate (i.e. steal) secrets, whereas in the case of other Chinese companies there is no proof so far (apparently not even any shared secretly with allied countries, otherwise they would be banning that stuff as well).

      Yeah, dftt, I know...

    2. batfink

      Re: Gosh, this can't be right

      We don't ridicule the idea that China is engaging in industrial espionage. We ridicule the idea that they're the only ones. Do you somehow think that the western countries aren't also spying on China?

      You're mistaking our cynicism about governments across the board (yes, especially including our own) for support for China.

    3. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Gosh, this can't be right

      And it never occurred to you to wonder why the people most targeted by the TSA for full scan inspections of laptops, phones and PDAs are businessmen working for large (non-American) companies? Or why the American government and spy agencies are so keen that the rest of the world uses equipment from the USA?

      I don't ridicule anyone for saying "Look out, the Chinese are watching you!". I do, however, ridicule anyone stupid enough to say they are the only ones doing it and acting like the rest of us are the naïve ones...

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Re: Gosh, this can't be right

        All three of you make the same point.

        I'd point out in return that there is a profound difference between the ubiquitous surf and a tsunami.

        I suspect most of the commenters you're complaining about are reacting to the imbalance, and the sheer DEGREE of imbalance.

        1. batfink

          Re: Gosh, this can't be right

          What imbalance? Our whole point is that we regard all governments EXACTLY THE SAME.

          Or are you trying to say that the Chinese spy more than other governments? Your assertion is based on what, exactly?

          Is it just "But they're THE BAD GUYS"?

          Thanks for the chuckle in these straitened times, anyway.

          1. Anonymous Coward
            Anonymous Coward

            Re: Gosh, this can't be right

            Concisely put.

            You have put your finger on the problem. Well done, and thank you -- saved me having to say it.

            There IS a massive asymmetry. Massive imbalance. Well documented. To put it another way, in your words, governments are NOT all the same.

            But you're not aware of it.

            You're operating on the basis of an idea. And it IS a lovely idea. I'll give you that.

            But it's not real. You clearly have not been paying attention to anything outside your preferred venues.

            A largeish number of senior spy bods have warned that Russia and China 's espionage is running at levels higher than even during the cold war. For years now. Russia's is mostly vs the States; China's is more general. You apparently missed all that. Plus any number of local news stories globally re specific events demonstrating a whole-state level of effort that makes the 60s CIA look like sane kindergarten children with no budget.

            But you don't need them to be alarmed. Have you even read the terms of the BRI contracts? That's eyes-out-on-stalks territory. Noticed the south china sea "coast guard" is shipping better-than-antarctic-standard ice breakers to smash ships? Are you not even aware that Xi very publicly ordered the southern army last year to be ready for immediate war? Do you even know of the 3 nonmilitary warfares China declared?

            You seem to think that ignorance constitutes virtue, constitutes superiority.

            You seem not to realise that you look like fools, to people actually paying attention.

            "Useful idiots".

            Look it up.

  5. Duncan Macdonald


    If the data on the SD cards was decently encrypted then just sending it by post to China would have been easier and far less likely to be detected.

    An alternative method (also assuming decent encryption) post the data on a Usenet newsgroup - there is no easy method to determine who has received the data.

    1. Doctor Syntax Silver badge

      Re: Stupid

      He was also the conduit for cash in the opposite direction.

    2. Another User

      Re: Stupid

      Your ideas do not improve the situation. Posting to a news group leave a permanent trail pointing to the sender. Same applies for a letter sent. Using dead drops sounds like a reasonable thing to do.

      Also surveillance requires much less effort if you get on the radar. Tapping your comms is a no brainer. Giving your letter some extra care is also not so difficult. Getting caught in the act is really only the last step. We need this for a fair trial. The perp already knows he is guilty but for us citizens it is important to know that he is really guilty.

    3. Cynic_999

      Re: Stupid

      Or send it via a Tor connection.

    4. spold Silver badge

      Re: Stupid

      Steganography - plenty of free tools - send it in a bunch of cat pictures

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Re: Stupid

        Re: "plenty of free tools"

        Not to mention an Internet full of cat pictures in which to blend in.

      2. doublelayer Silver badge

        Re: Stupid

        Neither Tor nor steganography provide a convenient method for money to be sent in reverse. Physical cash pickup does. In addition:

        Tor: If you are being tracked, they'll notice you start using it. Unless you do that very often, they'll be suspicious. The amount of data you transmit can be determined, and the network itself is slow.

        Steganography: That works fine if it's a small amount of information. If it's gigabytes, which would fit just fine on an SD card, you'll need to hide it in hundreds of gigabytes of extra data. That probably won't go unnoticed if someone's watching you. Also, you'd have to keep all of that up so it's not obvious that you uploaded a couple million cat pictures and deleted them instantly. In addition, whoever hosted the data for you will have logs of who happened to look at all of them.

  6. Pascal Monett Silver badge

    "Peng will now spend years in prison for compromising the security of the United States"

    Peng is not the guy compromising the security of the USA, he's just the courier.

    The guy doing the compromising is, apparently, Ed. He's the guy the FBI should find.

    Of course, Peng is part of an espionage ring and guilty, no doubt there, but I think the wording is wrong. Peng participated in compromising US security, but he did not do so directly himself.

    1. John Robson Silver badge

      Re: "Peng will now spend years in prison for compromising the security of the United States"

      So which link in the chain was responsible for hanging the meat?

      All of them were...

  7. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

  8. batfink

    He seems to be very trusting

    According to the article, he apparently left $20k in cash in a hotel room on the promise that he'd be reimbursed.

    Being a tour guide in San Francisco must be more lucrative than I imagine, if he's got $20k he can afford to leave lying around.

    Of course his handlers may have given him the money in advance, but then it wouldn't be "reimbursement".

    1. Hans Neeson-Bumpsadese Silver badge

      Re: He seems to be very trusting

      his handlers may have given him the money in advance, but then it wouldn't be "reimbursement".


    2. mikiep

      Re: He seems to be very trusting

      Probably paid him in advance something like $45k to pay him for his services, and his travel expenses.

  9. Version 1.0 Silver badge

    This is the story, but was was the Plot?

    Nobody in the movie business would buy this story, it's only the tip of the iceberg - send it back to the writers for a rework to develop the back story.

    What was happening behind the scenes? Clearly a lot more than this little dribble of information "reveals" - I think there's probably enough happening behind locked doors to make the story into a 30 episode series.

  10. Doctor Syntax Silver badge

    Hotel staff are now regularly inspecting the underside of furniture.

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Having stayed at various hotels in the Bay Area, including months at a time at one in Newark. I can tell you that the cleaning staff definitely weren't bothering to look under, behind or even around furniture in the rooms. Pretty much a horror story even at even the big name hotel chains.

      So if this story means they actually bother to clean rooms properly, that's great news for the guests. Of course they might look under furniture etc and still not bother to clean the years of dust, hair and worse hiding there ...

    2. Willybee

      And they Turn In any Cash They Find ???

      Wanna Buy A Bridge ???

  11. Andy The Hat Silver badge

    "This case exposed one of the ways that Chinese intelligence officers work to collect classified information from the United States without having to step foot in this country,"

    Or, in plain English, a paid agent nicks it from WITHIN THE COUNTRY, passes it to a paid courier WITHIN THE USA who manually transports it to China ... the only bit that's 'without having to step foot in this country' being the final delivery. Isn't that chain similar to the way every case of espionage works?

    Obviously the CIA don't do that as they always set foot in a foreign country and directly send their spying results to HQ (probably after opening channel d) and would never employ local agents and dead drops to do naughty stuff for them ...

  12. Cynic_999

    Why such a crude method?

    Why take the risk of exchanging physical media and cash?

    My method would be - the corporation or government buying the data opens 4 or 5 bank accounts in China. It sends the debit cards associated with those accounts to the spy in the USA. The spy can at any time request a balance on the accounts from any ATM to see if money has been deposited.

    The stolen data is sent via Tor or any other secure link (e.g. encrypted inside an innocent photograph or video uploaded to a foreign image sharing site). If very paranoid, connect to the Internet via a satellite service (with the subscriber being the same organisation buying the data). The location of satellite users cannot be pinpointed (unless they want to be located).

    The spy gets his money via multiple cash withdrawals from different ATMs around a city using the multiple bank cards over a period of a week or two. Maybe using a suitable disguise in case CCTV footage is examined. $20000 would be lost in the noise of many Chinese tourists and business people using ATM services with Chinese debit cards.

    1. doublelayer Silver badge

      Re: Why such a crude method?

      I covered the problems of Tor and steganography above, but the short version is that Tor can be detected and steganography works well only if the information is short. I didn't talk about satellite though. It's not easy to have an untraceable satellite connection--if someone's watching you, they'll see the dish on your house, and most things that don't require extra hardware don't allow much data traffic. Either way, there'll be an extra bill to pay, so someone would ask "Why is a Chinese bank account with no ID paying for satellite internet service or a satellite phone in the U.S.", assuming the U.S. allows people to do that with unverified addresses, which they might not. Your method for getting the money out would probably work though.

      1. John Brown (no body) Silver badge

        Re: Why such a crude method?

        I remember a novel plot point in a spy book I read many years ago, possibly the 80's. The spy would go outside at certain specified times, lay on his back and then mouth the words of the information he needed to pass on. The timing was critical because the spy satellite passing over would be filming him for the lip-readers back home.

        Now that I've typed that out, ISTR it was an SF book, but set in the present or at least very near present day (of the time, not 21st C)

      2. NetBlackOps

        Re: Why such a crude method?

        Actually there are ways of doing these drops securely over the Internet which are near impossible to trace but I'll be damned if I give a tutorial. Difficult? Yes. However, in this case, you are up against the NSA once you become a "person of interest." It's never getting on their RADAR that's the trick.

    2. Willybee

      Re: Why such a crude method?

      Folks with such rich imaginations aren't typically trustworthy "Spies".

  13. HammerOn1024

    Whiskey Tango Foxtrot?!

    Four years?! Four years! Dear Judge, it should be LIFE, a short walk off a short plank into deep water or a rope around the neck and a short drop!

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Whiskey Tango Foxtrot?!

      a) why do you regard this as so serious?

      b) remember the European Convention on Human Rights

      1. doublelayer Silver badge

        Re: Whiskey Tango Foxtrot?!

        "b) remember the European Convention on Human Rights"

        This is the U.S. They don't subscribe to the ECHR, and capital punishment is still allowed in some parts of the country. You could argue against it on American law, moral grounds or by referring to U.N. human rights statements that the U.S. has signed, but not the ECHR. Of course, the U.S. hasn't tried at all to enact that punishment in this case anyway.

    2. DubyaG

      Re: Whiskey Tango Foxtrot?!

      Four years for just being a mule seems appropriate. What you don't know is if the feds are on the hunt for "Ed". That guy if they catch will be breaking big ones into little ones for a long time. My guess is that they did not arrest him for a while to see if they could find the other end of the drop. I be we don't hear about that one for a while, if at all.

    3. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Whiskey Tango Foxtrot?!


      you forget the goose and gander story?

      one Chinesse mule caught gets 4 years, chineese are smart he'll be the only one,

      makes international news

      Merkin spy get caught in Chaina, pain, suffering will follow, collaps of whole spy ring will follow, Many good merkin citizans working for NGO's attached to the merkin enbisey , but not the merkin govt,

      will be rounded up and more pain, suffering and talking , more collaps etc.....

      no jail time , no international news, on news at all, nothing to see here!

      no bodies, no more talk.

    4. John Brown (no body) Silver badge

      Re: Whiskey Tango Foxtrot?!

      Don't forget, this was corporate espionage, not military or state secrets.

      1. Willybee

        Re: Whiskey Tango Foxtrot?!

        If it were Military Secrets, The "Mule" would be Eligible for

        TaxPayer-Funded Sex Restoration Surgery and Therapy !!!

        Run for Congress too !!!

  14. Aristotles slow and dimwitted horse

    Why put this in quotes...

    Why highlight this via quotes : "training in traditional Chinese medicine"?

    It has been almost proven on multiple occasions that traditional Chinese medicine is nearly 0.0001% effective even for those refuseniks that believe in fairy tales and has had almost no massive impact on already highly endangered species like Rhinocerosses, Heffalumps, Tigers and Whales and such like at all...


  15. Aussie Doc
    Black Helicopters


    I'm no criminal mastermind but I would surmise 'Ed' will be currently stockpiling loo rolls whilst in hiding because, notwithstanding what we're not being told here, I'm pretty sure somebody will want to have a chat with him soon.

  16. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

    "I'm pretty sure somebody will want to have a chat with him soon."

    No point in publicising you know the mule until you have "Ed" as well. Otherwise he'll just go to ground. In spy story scenarios "Ed" could be a double agent - possibly even planted to give the Chinese false information or expose their agents..

    1. A.P. Veening Silver badge

      In which case the mule didn't transport secrets so isn't guilty.

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        "In which case the mule didn't transport secrets so isn't guilty."

        Deliberately attempting to break a law is probably an offence - even if you don't achieve your aim. In English Law such crimes can be covered by the generic blanket of "conspiracy to" - which is treated as a very serious offence. In the USA a possible defence could be that it was entrapment.

  17. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward


    Totally unsurprising, the Chinese Government has infiltrated many structures around the world.

    Universities are key area they target and Chinese academics often seek to become involved with long term research projects that may have commercial or military outcomes their home state wants access to. The spread of Confucius Institutes further extends their influence, and enables party officials access both to University management and policies, and to 'control' the aforesaid academics, often using threats against their extended family back in China to ensure compliance. They also arrange Ambassadorial visits, where they bring their own 'scientists', often in the guise of 'secretaries' or other support to look over research facilities with a knowledgeable eye and others who will try to get 'lost' so they can assess security.

    No doubt some Chinese students attending UK Universities taking computer security courses are doing so to learn not just how to do it but to know how our computer security specialists are trained to keep them out too.

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