back to article How the NSA hacks PCs, phones, routers, hard disks 'at speed of light': Spy tech catalog leaks

A leaked NSA cyber-arms catalog has shed light on the technologies US and UK spies use to infiltrate and remotely control PCs, routers, firewalls, phones and software from some of the biggest names in IT. The exploits, often delivered via the web, provide clandestine backdoor access across networks, allowing the intelligence …

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    1. Vociferous

      Re: hahahaha

      > still think the US government is the good guy

      Well it's still less-worse than Russia and China. Cold comfort, I know.

      > The worst part is it did so in less than two decades

      Yes. I've said it before: it's both a mercy and a shame that so few Americans understand just how badly Bush damaged the USA. I'm even starting to think Bush may have mortally wounded the US empire.

      Obama has improved things a little, but not nearly enough to win back any moral high ground, and if a progressive democrat president wont/can't reverse the damage, then who can?

      1. Alan W. Rateliff, II
        Paris Hilton

        Re: hahahaha

        "Well it's still less-worse than Russia"

        Pfah! Putin expressed his jealousy.

      2. Frankee Llonnygog

        Re: Obama has improved things a little

        Apparently he has a weekly Terror Tuesday when he signs off on the next round of illegal murders-by-drone

      3. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Re: hahahaha

        The difference is Russia doesn't try to portray itself as the world police, the installer of freedom and democracy around the world.

        1. Vociferous

          Re: hahahaha

          > The difference is Russia doesn't try to portray itself as the world police, the installer of freedom and democracy around the world

          No, it's a fascist dictatorship without rule of law or freedom of expression, which shamelessly supports other genocidal dictatorships and tries to engulf surrounding countries, without even trying to pretend it's interested in freedom or democracy.

          The US commitment to freedom and democracy may be charitably described as "selective" (as proven for instance by Syria), but even so it puts limits on what the US can do. For instance, the US couldn't use the same extremely harsh tactics in Iraq as Russia did in Chechnya to crush rebellion, because the US claimed to be trying to free the Iraqis.

          The US may be like a drunk which falls off the wagon more often than not and lies to itself that it's just going take this one glass, but it's at least got the goal to sober up. Russia's and China's goal is to drink more than anyone else.

          1. Vociferous

            Re: hahahaha

            It just occurs to me that westerners know so little about the world outside the West that maybe many don't know what tactics the Russians used in Chechnya. Ten percent of the country's population was killed, and that was before Putin installed the war's worst war criminal as president, who is still to this day torturing and murdering with the full support of Russia.

            1. Destroy All Monsters Silver badge

              Re: hahahaha

              > It just occurs to me that westerners know so little about the world outside the West

              It is only for the best, otherwise they would no longer sleep seeing how "the west" flattened and poisoned whole countries and even now supports the worst shits in the 'tans.

              Governments are not nice, whether headed by Putin or "dumocratically elected" retards.

          2. Anonymous Coward
            Anonymous Coward

            Re: hahahaha

            "No, it's a fascist dictatorship without rule of law or freedom of expression, which shamelessly supports other genocidal dictatorships and tries to engulf surrounding countries, without even trying to pretend it's interested in freedom or democracy."

            Yes, and if it was called "China" then our elected representatives would be fighting to be the first to make deals with it and slobber over its leaders to make trade deals.

            So, while what you're saying is true, it is easy to forget that the depiction of such nations is almost entirely controlled by the US and what suits its foreign policy objectives. It is a case of not thinking enough moves ahead in the global chess game to see any difference between Russia, China, and the US just because the last one pretends to be a democracy. It's just another military-controlled country who's main objective is not to "sober up" but to portray the correct image of the rest of the world in order to allow the leaders of that military to continue to binge themselves on the taxes of the masses.

            In the end, the only thing that matters to the powerful is staying in power; the specific flag they wrap themselves in is irrelevant.

      4. Ken Hagan Gold badge

        Re: hahahaha

        "if a progressive democrat president wont/can't reverse the damage, then who can?"

        I have no problem imagining a strong politician of any persuasion reigning in the power of the state. Remember that the Tea Party folks are all anti-"big government" and it doesn't come much bigger than the Stasi wet dream that is being described here.

        Where I do have a problem is in imaging a strong politician managing to get the necessary financial backing and the necessary public support when all the money is in the hands of big business who so clearly don't want a strong politician. They want one they can steer.

      5. RobHib
        Unhappy

        @Vociferous -- Re: hahahaha

        Well it's still less-worse than Russia and China. Cold comfort, I know.

        Perhaps so, but by what measure or comparison? It could be argued that with such horrendous historical pasts, that in the circumstances, both Russia and China are doing very well [catching up].

        On the other hand, once the preacher, crusader and moralist has been caught red-handed and exposed as a dishonest and fraudulent charlatan, then suspicion will always linger and surround his future motives.

        No matter how sincere his repentance and atonement may be, his reputation will probably never fully recover, as good, right, honesty and what is correct are perceived as simple notions, thus inviolate.

        Once lost, it's nigh on impossible to regain the moral high ground.

        (And I don't ever expect to see the US regain it within my lifetime.)

    2. Psyx

      Re: hahahaha

      "What's funny (in a stomach churning only hurts when I laugh kind of way) is so many fellow brainwashed countrymen still think the US government is the good guy."

      No, we all know that the British are the Bad People, with all their imperialism and stuff, and sticking their noses into other nations and starting wars. Right? That's why all the bad people in Movies are British.

  1. Anonymous Coward
    Black Helicopters

    cat

    meet pigeons.

    obligatory trusting trust link goes here.

  2. Salts

    Ok, not so quick and easy

    How about a program that runs MD5 check sums on all firmware.

    Not easy as we have to trust the manufactures not to have been subverted, I also know it is not a complete answer, but check sums for all firmware would at least be a start.

    Just a thought....

    1. Alan W. Rateliff, II
      Paris Hilton

      Re: Ok, not so quick and easy

      And from where do you think we will obtain trust-worthy hashes?

      1. Chemist

        Re: Ok, not so quick and easy

        "And from where do you think we will obtain trust-worthy hashes?"

        That American gov.agency responsible for security ? -Oh wait ..

        1. Anonymous Coward
          Anonymous Coward

          Re: Ok, not so quick and easy

          Hashes can be obtained using a 'globally' collected system. If millions of people from all over the world have the same hash it's unlikely they are compromised and could be used as a 'clean' baseline. Well that's the theory at any rate. But it does not protect from hardware hacks/exchanges.

          1. Dan 55 Silver badge
            Black Helicopters

            Re: Ok, not so quick and easy

            MD5 is compromised, I'm pretty sure 'they' could change the code but not the checksum if 'they' wanted to.

            Ditto SHA1, probably.

            Some super manufacturer-supplied firmware checker using 10 different checksums that you download from their support site? How do you check that hasn't been compromised if you're MITMed?

            Horrendous, isn't it?

      2. This post has been deleted by its author

    2. stuff and nonesense

      Re: Ok, not so quick and easy

      Salts, your idea has merit, the question is who do you trust?

      Donkeys years ago I worked in a company that made mission critical hardware. We used a checksum on the software/firmware code at compilation time.

      The checksum values were stored on hard copy (paper) and elsewhere, corrections to any errors were signed (on the sheet of paper). An altered entry with no signature was deemed invalid : that software release was checked against the version controlled code library.

      The binaries generated were then stored on a server and loaded onto the EPROM devices as required.

      When programmed the EPROM was interrogated to verify that the checksum was correct. Verification was against the paper copy checksum.

      The devices were not connected to any external networks and could not be interfered with (exception : physical modification).

      There has to be a point where trust can be established. If not what remains is the belief that the manufacturers are deliberately compromising their firmware.

      There should be no routine monitoring of (world) citizens. Monitoring should only take place when there is a valid reason and a court order limiting the scope of the surveillance.

      There is a need to be able to intercept data but just because they can doesn't mean they should.

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        Re: Ok, not so quick and easy

        @ stuff and nonesense

        It's much more complex these days on the Network devices I work on:

        Embedded checksums in all code and configuration files

        Configuration file encryption

        Background Condition Screening that checks these checksums and all hardware devices constantly

        Devices that need physical jumpers to disable hardware write protection when configuration or program changes are required

        Tamper monitoring to report when the device has been opened to add those jumpers etc.

        Active network intrusion attempt detection

        Plus lots more that won't appear on the data sheets!

        But the arms race is accelerating exponentially to the point that we now spend more time creating new security than adding protocol support!

      2. nematoad Silver badge

        Re: Ok, not so quick and easy

        "There should be no routine monitoring of (world) citizens."

        No there shouldn't, but you know, there's a war on and a dragnet operation is *so* much easier.

        I think Applebaum has got it about right. The war is the security services against the rest of us.

        Bastards.

  3. Winkypop Silver badge
    Mushroom

    Ripley got it right

    I say we take off and nuke the entire site from orbit. It's the only way to be sure...

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Ripley got it right

      No chance. They hacked the nuke, too. Now there's NO way to be sure. Full-on DTA mode now.

  4. TWB

    So this is why windows PCs slow down over time.

    Its not bloatware, it's NSA installed spyware.....

    I actually think that all this talk of NSA doing this and that is probably a more effective way of 'controlling' the masses than actually acting on all the information they supposedly have and rooting out true baddies, I also think it drives more people to terrorism. I'm thinking of joining a group, if only I could find one which represents middle class liberal angst types like me.

    1. Dick Emery

      Re: So this is why windows PCs slow down over time.

      It's called the Conservative party.

      1. TWB

        Re: So this is why windows PCs slow down over time.

        I think they lack liberal angst...

      2. Vociferous

        Re: So this is why windows PCs slow down over time.

        > It's called the Conservative party.

        They may have started it, but you wont see any other party in any hurry to stop the surveillance.

        1. Destroy All Monsters Silver badge
          Headmaster

          Re: So this is why windows PCs slow down over time.

          The Timmy McVeigh party still needs to be created.

          Gore Vidal: The Meaning of Timothy McVeigh

          For Timothy McVeigh, [Waco and Ruby Ridge] became the symbol of [federal] oppression and murder. Since he was now suffering from an exaggerated sense of justice, not a common American trait, he went to war pretty much on his own and ended up slaughtering more innocents than the Feds had at Waco. Did he know what he was doing when he blew up the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City because it contained the hated [Feds]? McVeigh remained silent throughout his trial. Finally, as he was about to be sentenced, the court asked him if he would like to speak. He did. He rose and said, “I wish to use the words of Justice Brandeis dissenting in Olmstead to speak for me. He wrote, ‘Our government is the potent, the omnipresent teacher. For good or ill, it teaches the whole people by its example.’” Then McVeigh was sentenced to death by the government.

          Those present were deeply confused by McVeigh’s quotation. How could the Devil quote so saintly a justice? I suspect that he did it in the same spirit that Iago answered Othello when asked why he had done what he had done: “Demand me nothing, what you know you know, from this time forth I never will speak word.” Now we know, too: or as my grandfather used to say back in Oklahoma, “Every pancake has two sides.”

          When McVeigh, on appeal in a Colorado prison, read what I had written he wrote me a letter and …

          But I’ve left you behind in the Ravello garden of Klingsor, where, live on television, I mentioned the unmentionable word “why,” followed by the atomic trigger word “Waco.” Charles Gibson, 3,500 miles away, began to hyperventilate. “Now, wait a minute … ” he interrupted. But I talked through him. Suddenly I heard him say, “We’re having trouble with the audio.” Then he pulled the plug that linked ABC and me. The soundman beside me shook his head. “Audio was working perfectly. He just cut you off.” So, in addition to the governmental shredding of Amendments 4, 5, 6, 8, and 14, Mr. Gibson switched off the journalists’ sacred First.

  5. Christian Berger

    The really bad thing is...

    ...that there are people designing and producing such things and handing them to the NSA!

    However there is a silver lining around the dark cloud. During the 30c3 the organizers got a couple of actors to pose as recruiters for a dubious (fictional) company called "Security Solutions Limited". They ask around 500 people and only 2 seemed interested enough to go to further back room talks.

    The NSA doesn't work by "itself". It needs smart people from the hacker community joining them. Either directly or through contractors. We need to stop helping them hurting us all.

    BTW: the recordings of the talks, as far as they are already available are here: http://cdn.media.ccc.de/congress/30C3/mp4/ Append .torrent to get to the torrent file.

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Black Helicopters

      Re: The really bad thing is...

      How many hackers would like a steady paycheck where they can do stuff like TAO does, plus they get to play secret agent, plus they get to be above the law while doing it? Lots, I imagine...

      That, and defense contractors don't care about the "why" when they are asked to design and build something, they just build it.

  6. Lapun Mankimasta Bronze badge

    hoi8st on their own petards ...

    "Appelbaum and the Der Spiegel team have been careful to exclude the published names of NSA staff who carry out these attacks, and the names of the people and organizations the agency has targeted."

    Ah, but they still had to store the unredacted files on their networked computers while doing the redacting, and those computers are compromised. I cannot imagine that either the Russians or the Chinese are ignorant of those names. It's too much of a leap of faith to believe otherwise.

    The NSA has just illustrated the military manoeuvre known as "Hoisting oneself on one's own petard." It is a truly inspiring sight, is it not!?!?

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: hoi8st on their own petards ...

      Given what they know, are you sure they did the redaction on NETWORKED computers?

      They undoubtedly started with a heavily encrypted file. If I were them, knowing what I know (let alone what other details they know they haven't published yet) I'd transfer that encrypted file via a brand new USB stick to a laptop with the wireless physically disabled. On it I'd have a virgin OS, running a VM with a virgin OS, and perform the decryption and redaction there, before copying the redacted file out on a different brand new USB stick to be transferred to a network computer. After which I'd wipe the hard drive in the laptop, and destroy both USB sticks.

      Even that wouldn't protect against all the stuff they're capable of, but it is probably the best you can do under the circumstances. Maybe select some really off brand laptop that never sold well, so they'd be less likely to have created a firmware/hardware exploit for it.

  7. Al_21
    Go

    Impressive

    I'm impressed by the technology assuming everything on NSA/GCHQ's works as simple as this article makes it out to be in my imagination.

    I doubt they're interested in any of us (sorry to deflate your bubbles), but now it's all out in the open, I want to see it be used to catch the bad guys. That's the only way it'll win back the public.

    Then make a good movie or TV series like 24, The Wire(Cable) or Spooks and opinions will change.

    1. Phil O'Sophical Silver badge
      Thumb Up

      Re: Impressive

      assuming everything on NSA/GCHQ's works as simple as this article makes it out to be

      Well, that's the thing, isn't it. Some of it is pretty far-fetched, if I worked in the NSA this is exactly the kind of catalogue that I would "leak" to potential adversaries, as disinformation.

      Has anyone analyzed this to see if there's a pattern in terms of companies/systems that are not mentioned? Maybe those are the ones we should really be wary of.

      Heigh-ho! Tinfoil hats on, everyone

      1. Vociferous

        Re: Impressive

        > if I worked in the NSA this is exactly the kind of catalogue that I would "leak" to potential adversaries

        Well, much, perhaps most, of it was actually known before Snowden leaked it (for instance that all cell phone calls and all international calls are automatically scanned). It just got a lot more attention through Snowden's leak.

        True, an orchestrated leak would be mostly true things which were already known, with some sneaky false things hidden among the true, but I think that's giving the US spy agencies too much credit.

      2. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        @Phil O'Sophical

        That's a nice idea, but unless Snowden really is still working for the NSA and the entire thing is a disinformation campaign, to release information we know has already leaked in the past, along with some stuff we can live with deliberately leaking, in order to leak disinformation, it seems rather unlikely.

        In theory the NSA could keep disinformation on its servers just in case someone ever did a massive leak like this, but I'll bet they had too much hubris to believe anyone could ever take information from them wholesale.

        I agree with you that I wouldn't read anything into the idea that companies not mentioned are "safe". The file is supposed to be from 2007 (according to the paragraph about the iPhone) so that's a lot of time for them to fill in their gaps. As well, stuff that didn't exist then like Android and Windows Phone would have been bugged by now.

        It is amazing to me that the iPhone was bugged back in 2007, when only a million or so sold and it wasn't at all clear it was going to be the success it was. I mean, why bother? If they go to the trouble of targeting that, I doubt anyone should feel proud of themselves for using one of the last WebOS phones and thinking they're safe!

        1. Alan W. Rateliff, II
          Paris Hilton

          Re: @Phil O'Sophical

          When the iPhone was introduced I knew it would be a stellar success. Not because I am an Apple advocate, but because I saw what happened with the iPod, I know the iFanboi mentality, and I have always noted how Apple just "gets" the user experience.

          Top Men came to similar conclusions as I for much better reasons than I.

    2. Dodgy Geezer Silver badge

      I want to see it be used to catch the bad guys.

      If you believe that there ARE any bad guys out there - at least the kind of bad guys that NSA and Hollywood pretend that there are, in order to keep their respective jobs - them NSA has already won.

      1. Vic

        Re: I want to see it be used to catch the bad guys.

        > If you believe that there ARE any bad guys out there

        There are many, many bad guys out there.

        I imagine that, without exception, they all consider themselves to be the Good Guys(tm).

        And I suspect that the vast majority are government-funded.

        Vic.

  8. Pete 2 Silver badge

    No better way to destroy a country's IT business

    If the NSA was planning on actively undermining global confidence in american made, or american owned technology companies, they would probably have a strategy that looked a lot like what they're doing.

    So much of our world depends on financial transactions being carried out electronically and all of those transactions are based on the trust we place in the institutions and the infrastructure being incorruptible. What this tells us is that those assumptions are completely wrong.

    Leave aside the (relatively minor) issues about personal privacy. I think we all realise that is a lost cause - and was probably always a myth, anyway. But to have one country, and an unaccountable, secret entity within it, that is above (or making) the law able to track, manipulate, corrupt or deny electronic access to funds, destroys the basic foundation of the world-wide commerce system.

    However, if someone was able to use that as their USP, saying: "Look. None of our systems were designed by americans. None of them use american parts. There are no americans in our factories, laboratories, sales or support organisations and we can guarantee that these systems use hardware and security algorithms that have never touched the USA, or it's allies, and are physically and electronically tamper-proof" - then you have something that almost no other country or company can sell.

    The only question that would remain is who do you trust the least? The americans or whoever offers the alternative.

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: No better way to destroy a country's IT business

      the EU agreed to let the USA have access to SWIFT years ago. or is your concern re internal dollar transactions?

      1. Pete 2 Silver badge

        Re: No better way to destroy a country's IT business

        I'm not concerned about the surveillance issues regarding SWIFT - that boat has sailed. In fact it's over the horizon and out of sight by now. Nor am I going to lose sleep about personal privacy: that boat also gone.

        No. The bigger issue is the NSA promises that systems can be hacked "at the speed of light and the implication that the trust we implicitly have in EFT and all other electronic financial tools - even down to reporting share prices - can no longer be guaranteed while the NSA has this capability.

        Traditionally, wars have been about physical confrontation and destruction. Whichever side manages to beat the crap out of the other: they're the winner. That has mutated somewhat into an economic war: whichever side manages to get the other's "fiscal nuts" into a vice and turns the handle: they're the winner. The Cold War might well have been the prototype for this sort of conflict - won not by military means, but by out-producing and bankrupting the adversary.

        If the financial equivalent of sabotage can be developed and deployed - possibly to make electronic transactions involving "enemy" states or their companies unreliable, corrupted ("why was that transfer declined, there are billions in that account?") or too slow - such as by adding 1 millisecond to share dealings, then that is an effective tool of warfare. Unfortunately, we all then stand the risk of becoming collateral damage in a "clean" war, where victims die from economic malaise in their still-standing homes, rather than a bayonet to the guts in a muddy field, thousands of miles away.

    2. Vociferous

      Re: No better way to destroy a country's IT business

      > If the NSA was planning on actively undermining global confidence in american made, or american owned technology companies, they would probably have a strategy that looked a lot like what they're doing.

      You do realize that you are really suggesting that Snowden's leak was a Chinese secret service operation, right?

    3. Hit Snooze
      Meh

      Re: No better way to destroy a country's IT business

      "However, if someone was able to use that as their USP, saying: "Look. None of our systems were designed by americans. None of them use american parts. There are no americans in our factories, laboratories, sales or support organisations and we can guarantee that these systems use hardware and security algorithms that have never touched the USA, or it's allies, and are physically and electronically tamper-proof" - then you have something that almost no other country or company can sell."

      The NSA / CIA would love this. First, nothing gets extremely smart and creative people excited more than thinking of new ways to crack into a "NSA/CIA proof" system. You might as well use a red bullseye for your company logo. Second, it would be a foreign company so no worries of getting on the wrong side of the US law. Win/win for three letter US government agencies!

      The best part is that you are thinking in technical espionage like any engineer would. You do realize that the hottest girl at the Star Trek convention (hot AND knows Klingon, I can't believe my good fortune!1!) who randomly bumped into you and wow, she is interested in you and loves to hear you ramble on about your boring secret tech work, is really a spy? No need for them to hack your systems, by the time your "girlfriend" is done with you, you will have hacked your own systems.

      Same goes for married people. Get them to cheat on their spouse, then blackmail.

      "insert this little bit of code and your significant other will never know about our little secret, we pinky swear"

      Tech geeks = low hanging fruit for spies.

      1. Pete 2 Silver badge

        Re: No better way to destroy a country's IT business

        > First, nothing gets extremely smart and creative people excited ...

        Very true. Now consider this: There are 300 million americans, 500 million in EU countries and 1.2 .... sorry: 1.3 ... err, 1.35 billion chinese. Maybe at present the balance is tipped in favour of the USA due to its predominance and it's ties with Europe. However, over time it's simply an inevitable matter of numbers that there will be more "extremely smart and creative" people inside China than inside America.

        Don't take that as me advocating one side or the other. Just look at the numbers and ask two questions: when will (or did) it happen and what will be (or is) the effect on the west and its ability to out-smart the other guys? I am absolutely convinced that there are high-powered think-tanks working for every major government that are fully engaged on this question, already. I just hope we all manage to come to some sensible conclusions.

        1. Anonymous Coward
          Anonymous Coward

          @Pete 2

          The problem with your statement is that if it was true, China, India and Indonesia would have been dominating the Nobel Prizes for decades now.

          It is much more than just numbers, you have to have a support system (education, financial) in place to allow that. China has that now, India is halfway there, Indonesia less so. Beyond that, there is more required, which is harder to define. You can educate someone, and make them smart up to the best their abilities will allow. That doesn't make them creative. You can't teach creativity - or at least we don't know nearly as well how to do that, as we do how to teach people calculus or Spanish.

        2. Hit Snooze

          Re: No better way to destroy a country's IT business

          > Just look at the numbers and ask two questions: when will (or did) it happen and what will be (or is) the effect on the west and its ability to out-smart the other guys?

          It is the classic Cat and Mouse game. One government will come up with a way to get ahead in the rat race, other spy agencies will learn of it before it is implemented or soon after and create their own version plus a defense if possible. There are different leagues of course - USA (Five Eyes), China, Russia, maybe Germany and Israel are (to use USA's baseball lingo) in the Majors while others are in the Minors, and still others are in Little League.

          I am not concerned about which government(s) are spying on me or a business, I was just pointing out that by describing a business as "not touched by Americans so it is secure" is silly since there is more than one way to skin a cat. Unfortunately, we are the cat and we get shaved, waxed, probed, burned, poked in the eye, noses rubbed in urine, etc by every government, bank, and corporation on earth if they are given the chance or have the means.

  9. Chozo
    Devil

    ##Redacted##

    If the bean counters will swallow $600 hammers, $2,500 toilet seats, and $5,000 coffeepots then how much could we say these 'bugged' USB cables cost us?

    1. Maharg

      Re: ##Redacted##

      While I agree with the sentiment, from what I remember reading the hammer didn’t cost $600 it was part of a bulk equipment and spare part purchase brought for a few thousand and the ‘bean counters’ just allocated each item as costing $600 to make things simple, I think the quote went

      “everyone talks about how much that hammer cost, but they don’t mention what a great deal we got on the $600 Jet Engine”

      As for the toilet seat, that was to replace a broken toilet in a submarine that had to be a certain spec (I’m guessing size, weight, noise reduction, etc), as they didn’t make those toilets anymore, , the money wasn’t on just buying a new toilet seat, it was on the R&D of more or less reinvent the toilet seat.

      As for the third item, well you can’t put a price on good coffee.

    2. Vociferous

      Re: ##Redacted##

      > $600 hammers, $2,500 toilet seats, and $5,000 coffeepots

      I'll take "how do you disguise funding for black projects" for $100, Alex.

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